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加拿大本科毕业论文参考:混合产品如何成功地结合产品和

时间:2016-06-30 11:48来源:www.liuxuelw.com 作者:留学论文网 点击:
本文主要是从的4Ps,4C标准,4RS营销理论的角度来看,从三个阶段来审查产品战略的理论和实践的发展。
Hybrid Offerings—How to combine products and services successfully?

产品和产品战略的定义
 
产品指的是能够提供给市场供人们使用和消费的东西,以满足人们的某些要求(科特勒和阿姆斯壮,2009)。产品一般可分为三个层次,即核心价值、有形价值、附加价值(科特勒和阿姆斯壮,2009)。核心价值是指直接效益和效用,整体产品提供买家(科特勒和阿姆斯壮,2009);有形价值是指在一个市场商品形状的实体,包括产品的品质、特征、造型、商标和包装(科特勒和阿姆斯壮,2009;赫尔佐格,meuris,本德和克,2014);附加值是指一系列的附加利益和服务,全面的产品提供给客户,包括送货、安装、维修、保证等(科特勒和阿姆斯壮,2009;schenkl,Sauer和MöRTL,2014)。产品战略是一系列的措施和手段,企业通过在产品的生产和销售,在激烈的市场竞争中占据优势,包括产品的生产经营策略、产品定位、产品组合策略、产品差异化战略、品牌战略等(科特勒和阿姆斯壮,2009;氏等人。,2013)。
 
发展产品策略
 
1960年,麦卡锡提出的4P营销理论。在产品策略方面,他认为企业应该专注于产品成本控制,质量和功能,使产品的生产经营战略是企业的产品战略的主要内容。在此期间,产品战略专注于满足消费者对产品的核心价值(麦卡锡,1960年)的需求。

 
Foundation of hybrid offerings 混合型产品的基础

Product strategy
 
Table 1: Evolution of product strategy
Definitions of product and product strategy
Products refer to anything which is able to be offered to a market for people to use and consume, so as to meet people’s certain requirements (Kotler and Armstrong, 2009). Products can generally be divided into three levels, namely, core value, tangible value, added value (Kotler and Armstrong, 2009). Core value refers to the direct benefit and utility that an overall product provides buyers (Kotler and Armstrong, 2009); tangible value refers to the entity in the shape of material goods in a market, including product quality, feature, styling, trademark and packaging (Kotler and Armstrong, 2009; Meuris, Herzog, Bende and Sadek, 2014); additional value refers to a range of additional benefits and services that an overall product offers to customers, including delivery, installation, maintenance, guarantees, and so on (Kotler and Armstrong, 2009; Schenkl, Sauer and Mörtl, 2014). Product strategy is a series of measures and instruments that an enterprise uses in the production and sale of products in order to gain an advantage in fierce market competition, including product production management strategy, product positioning, product portfolio strategy, product differentiation strategy, brand strategy and so on (Kotler and Armstrong, 2009; Beuren et al., 2013).
2.1.2 Evolution of product strategy
This essay was mainly from the perspectives of the marketing theory of 4Ps, 4Cs, 4Rs, from three phases to review the evolution on the theory and practice of product strategy.
In 1960, McCarthy proposed the marketing theory of 4P. In terms of product strategy, he believed that companies should focus on product cost control, quality and function, so product production management strategy is the main content of an enterprise’s product strategy. During this period, product strategy focused on meeting consumer demand for core value of products (McCarthy, 1960).
Emergence and use of the marketing theory of 4Ps was based on the shortage economy and large industrial economy, it emphasized development of marketing strategies from a business point of view, and how companies met market demand faster at lower cost, but 4Ps neglected consumer demand, which caused slow response of enterprises to changes in a market (Lauterborn, 1990). Marketing theory of 4Cs was brought forward by Lauterborn in 1990 (Lauterborn, 1990). He considered that corporate marketing should first study desires and needs of consumers, and then according to market demand to develop product strategy, rather than simply consider what kind of products they can produce; in addition to paying attention to function and quality of products, companies should begin to focus on product appearance, packaging, brand to better attract consumers, so as to meet consumer demand for personalities. During this period, companies began to think highly of product positioning strategy, product differentiation strategy, brand strategy. Product strategy in this period began to focus on meeting consumer demand for core value and tangible value of products (Lauterborn, 1990). (责任编辑:anne)
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