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新西兰硕士课程论文:研究20世纪70年代和20世纪80年代的冷战Cold War in the 1970s and 19

时间:2016-11-10 11:22来源:www.liuxuelw.com 作者:anne 点击:
在这篇文章中,研究了于20世纪70年代和80年代的冷战阶段。
根据定义,冷战指的是1947 - 1991年(第二次世界大战后)的时期,超级大国(弗莱明,1961年),即美国和苏联之间的政治和军事紧张状态, 。 事实上,战斗阵线和重点在不同阶段是不同的。
By definition, the cold war refers tothe period 1947-1991 (after World War II) where a state of political and military tension between super powers(Fleming, 1961),namely the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as their respective allies. Indeed, the fighting fronts and focus were differentduring different stages.
In this article, we focus on the stage of cold war in the 1970s and 1980s. The interpretation will be presented infour key schemes(Westad, 2013).
I. Ideological Divide一,思想分歧
事实上,美国和苏联在资本主义和共产主义之间的意识形态差异被认为是冷战的出现的主要原因。 在20世纪70年代和80年代,两国使用各种方式,包括经济制裁和军事战争,如美国的越南战争和苏联的阿富汗战争,在各国之间传播他们各自的意识形态。Indeed, the ideological difference between the U.S. and the USSR,between the capitalism and the communism, is considered as the key reason of the emergence of the cold war. In the 1970s and 1980s, both powers used various ways, including economic sanctions and military wars such as the Vietnam War by the United States and the Afghanistan war by the Soviet Union, to spread their respective ideology among other countries.

 

II. National Expansion国家扩张

 

由于纳粹德国在欧洲的崩溃和亚洲的帝国日本的崩溃,在第二次世界大战后创造了显着的政治真空。 因此,全球政治地图已经完全改变(Maier,1977)。自1945年以来,国家扩张已成为美国和苏联的关键重点之一(Brands,1994)。 在20世纪70年代和80年代,两国在军事,空间,经济和科学等各个领域都大幅度扩张。 例如,1969年美国在1966年响应苏联历史上第一次载人航天飞行,成功登陆月球。
As a result of the collapses of the Nazi Germany in Europe and imperial Japan in Asia,significantpolitical vacuums were created after the World War II. Hence, the global political map had been totally changed(Maier, 1977).Since 1945, national expansion had become one of the key focuses for both the United States and the Soviet Union(Brands, 1994). In the 1970s and 1980s, both countries expanded drastically in various fields, including military, space, economy and science. For instance, the successful landing on the moon was achieved by the United Statesin 1969,in responding to the first ever manned space flight in the history by the Soviet Union in 1966.
III. Militarization
Due to the World War II, enormous militarization was achieved by various countries, including Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan and China.As the two super powers then, the United States and the Soviet Union actually increased the military budgetafter the end of theWorld War II, instead of reducing it, to defend their territory,as well as their spheres of influence(Chomsky, 1996).The United States air and naval bases were spreading throughout the world while the Soviet Union possessed the most powerful ground force (a part of this force actuallystayed in the East Germany for more than a decade).

 

IV. Economic Hegemony经济霸权

 

Due to the severe devastation suffered by the Soviet Union as a result of the invasion by Nazi Germany, the United States established an economic hegemony since the 1950s, with the Bretton Woods Conference as the landmark. As a result, the United States wanted a dominant role economically and politically. However, the Soviet Union would never want dependence on the United States in any means. In the 1970s and 1980s, the Soviet Union had recovered from the war devastation and tried to break the American economic hegemony by loans and aids to the allies. Nevertheless, this policy had a negative effect on its domestic economy and is considered as oneof the key reasons of the Era of Stagnation in the mid-1970s(Rutland, 2009).
In conclusion, the cold war in the 1970s and 1980s is a key stage in the history of 20th century. In this article, interpretation of this era is presented in four key schemes, including ideological divide, national expansion, militarization and American economic hegemony.

 

References文献
 
BRANDS, H. W. 1994. The devil we knew: Americans and the Cold War, Oxford University Press.
CHOMSKY, N. 1996. World orders, old and new, Columbia University Press.
FLEMING, D. F. 1961. The Cold War and Its Origins: 1917-1960. 1950-1960, Doubleday.
MAIER, C. S. 1977. The politics of productivity: foundations of American international economic policy after World War II. International Organization, 31, 607-633. (责任编辑:anne)
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