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国际组织International Organisations

时间:2016-03-23 12:08来源:www.liuxuelw.com 作者:anne 点击:
本文将讨论非国家行为者是否有效和有效的环境问题,在透明性和开放性,非国家行为者的贡献和适当性。
目前,全球环境治理的高度依赖信息,关于环境问题的国家政策和行动,国际组织和非国家行为体(NSA)(哈斯,1990)。在全球化和全球治理等有许多的奇怪的理论家,和奈观察所产生的非国家行为体在全球范围的作用,特别是对环境问题。非国家行为者(NSA)可以被描述为在全球水平的演员,这是不是美国的代表(Higgott、昂德希尔&比埃勒,2000)。它包括国际组织、非政府组织、商业部门、认知社区和其他类别(艺术,2005)。因为世界已成为生态相互依存的,如生物多样性的环境问题,污染正成为钓鱼的全球性问题,因此,越来越多的非国家行为者的数量对环境问题采取行动。在这篇文章的核心部分,首先,国际组织,非政府组织和商业部门将被评估为有效和有效的关于捕鲸,污染和其他问题。然后,非政府组织和国际组织将被评估为效率低下和无效的外部和内部方面。Currently, the global environmental governance highly relies on the information, policies and actions about environmental issues by states, international organisations and non-state actors (NSAs) (Haas, 1990). Many theorists on globalization and global governance such as Keohane, Strange, and Nye observe arising role of non-state actors in the global area, especially on the environmental issues. Non-state actors (NSAs) can be described as the actors that operate at the global level, which are not the representatives of states (Higgott, Underhill, & Bieler, 2000). It includes international organisations, non-governmental organisations, business sectors, epistemic communities and other categories (Arts, 2005). Since the world has become ecologically interdependent, environmental issues such as biodiversity, fishingand pollution are becoming the global issues, thus, increasing number of non-state actors take actions on the environmental issues. This essay will discuss whether the non-state actors are efficient and effective on environmental issues, in terms of transparency and openness, contribution and appropriateness of non-state actors. In the core part of this essay, first, international organisations, NGOs and business sectors will be evaluated as efficient and effective on the issues of whaling, pollution and others. Then, NGOs and international organisations will be assessed as inefficient and ineffective on the external and internal aspects.
 
国际捕鲸委员会(IWC),最古老的国际组织之一,成立于1948年。它的工作原理在国际资源和环境管理领域。自1960年代中期,国际捕鲸委员会已作出了巨大的努力,并成功地形成节约型的前景和IWC内的强大和科学话语,这使得它高效的在这个领域(米切尔,1998年)。根据IWC的方向,日益激烈的环境运动积极游说。此外,国际捕鲸委员会内的科学家直接呼吁市民,他们主张停止鲸的枯竭。The International Whaling Commission (IWC), one of the oldest international organisations, founded in 1948. It works in the field of international resource and environmental management. Since the mid-1960s, the IWC has taken great efforts and succeeded in forming a conservation-oriented outlook and a stronger and scientific discourse within the IWC, which make it efficient and effective in this area (Mitchell, 1998). Under the direction of the IWC, an increasingly intense environmental movement lobbied actively. Additionally, scientists within the IWC appealed directly to the public, they advocated stopping the depletion of whales. According to Holt (1985), saving the whale becomes the test of one nation’s political ability to stop the environmental destruction. With tremendous support among the public, the whale became a major symbol of the environmental movement, the public calls for a moratorium of commercial whaling was successful, which was adopted at the Stockholm conference in 1972(Kobayashi, 2006). The reason why this environmental campaign was so successful led by the IWC can be illustrated in two points. First, its conservation-oriented approach, which shows the IWC was on the right course. It is easier and accessible to encourage people to involve in with a slogan like ‘save the whale’ than publish scientific statements on whale issue. For example, this environmental movement influenced the US most, it would be safe to confirm that the anti-whaling norm has internalised in the US in 1978 (Baily, 2008). Second, the IWC’s effectively use of environmental movement in its projects. The IWC made NGO participation and lobbying increased from a handful size in 1972 to 57 in 1982 in the area of whaling(Guevara, 2008). Moreover, the IWC made itself as an open organisation to encourage green movement. According to Andresen (1998), the startling numbers of environmental groups were carried out under the advocacy of the IWC. 
 
In sum, norms, knowledge, and institutional design all shed light on the efficient and effective operation of the IWC. When knowledge of scientists and norms of environmental movement goes together, the IWC can be influential. The institutional design of the IWC also explains the influence of the IWC. As far as transparency and openness are concerned, it is obvious that the IWC shared its information and experts’ knowledge with the public to make it popular in the environmental movement. Therefore, the IWC attracted more NGOs to advocate the idea of stop whaling, which embody itself as an open organisation in this area. The second criterion to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of the IWC is its contribution. It successfully calls for the moratorium on commercial whaling and made it adopted at the global conference. It led other actors to pay attention to the whaling issue and made this issue a concern at the global level. The last criterion is appropriateness. In the initial times, whaling nations and whaling industries only looked to the short-term profit, which resulted in the shortage of whale stock. Then the IWC appeared as the leadership to fight against this environmental issue, which was indeed the right time.  (责任编辑:anne)
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