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发展政治学:Politics of Development

时间:2016-02-04 09:24来源:www.liuxuelw.com 作者:anne 点击:
随着国际社会对食品援助已经在三种粮食援助的作用进行了评价,很显然在国际社会中,不同的组件,包括国际组织,非政府组织和国家发展的更多合作。
国际社会包括统计数据,非政府组织(NGO),其他国际组织,等等,谁都有共同的责任,并在解决发展问题,如饥荒(法斯宾德,2009年),其中存在的义务。饥荒被定义为粮食供应和权利,从而导致广泛的发病率的降低,它最初是由流程和事件(唐宁,1990年)的顺序引起的。据德瓦尔(1991年),饥荒在理论上是可以预防的,无论从它的根部或处理问题,但国际社会需要各种资源。他们用来对付饥荒最常用的方法是粮食援助。作为它的积极工具灾荒救济工作有效,而它的收件人产生几种令人沮丧的结果,以及(粘土,1996年),粮食援助可以算是。本文将评估国际社会是否已经通过对三种类型的粮食援助饥荒解决有效合作,他们是紧急情况,计划和项目粮食援助。
International community includes stats, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), other international organisations,and so on, who have common duties and obligations existing among them in solving development problems, like famine(Fassbender, 2009). Famine is defined as the reduction of food availability and entitlement, and result in widespread morbidity, which was originally caused by a sequence of processes and events(Downing, 1990). According to de Waal (1991),famine is preventable in theory, no matter from its root or process, but it needs various resources from the international community. The most common approach they used to combat famine is food aid. Food aid can be regarded as a positive tool for it works effectively in famine relief, while it produces several dismal results for recipients as well (Clay, 1996). This essay will evaluate whether the international community has worked effectively in solving famine through analysing three types of food aid, they are emergency, program, and project food aid.
 
主要有三种类型的粮食援助,国际社会在饥荒的国家实施。首先,紧急粮食援助,这往往是在危机时期,如冲突和灾难中。非政府组织和世界粮食计划署(WFP)是主要的管理员这种援助,通过实物粮食援助受危机影响的人免费发放。其次,节目粮食援助,商品被直接传送至接收方政府或其他代理人双边(巴雷特和麦克斯韦,2005)。通常情况下,条件通常相关联,并且它通常被用于解决长期饥荒。政府就是在这种粮食援助的核心部分。最后,项目粮食援助,这是捐赠,以支持通过非政府组织和政府间组织特定项目,是关系到进一步促进经济和农业development.This实物粮食援助的主要属性,以防止未来的饥荒。There are mainly three types of food aid that international community implemented in famine countries. First, emergency food aid,which is often used in times of crisis, such as conflict and disaster. NGOs and World Food Program (WFP) are the main administrators in this aid, through freely distributing in-kind food aid to crisis-affected people. Second, program food aid, commodities is delivered directly to a recipient government or other agents bilaterally (Barrett & Maxwell, 2005). Typically, conditionality is often associated, and it is commonly used to solve the long-term famine. Governments are the core part in this kind of food aid. Finally, project food aid, which is donated to support particular projects through NGOs and IGOs, and is related to promoting further economic and agricultural development.This kind of food aid mainly attributes to prevent future famine.
 
In terms of the emergency food aid, which can be called relief food aid, is mainly a food-based aid. Because of immediate crisis threats to lives and short-term stability, emergency food aid is considered as the most effective and efficient method to implement(OECD, 2006). In such an urgent situation, international community cooperate with governments of affected countries together to organise various resources to support the frontline of famine. For example, famine in Africa during 1991 to 1993, assistances provided by IGOs and NGOs moved quickly in limiting the ifluencess of famine on the people’slivelihoods and containing suffering. Emergency food aid also acts asan essential part in saving lives in famine. According to a recent survey, most of emergency food aid met the primary objective of feeding lives temporary, even in a further case, it maintains and improve nutritional status (ALNAP, 2004). Additionally, although emergency food aid with large scale is only examined systematically for a short time, it was operated in southern Africa’s famine in the 1980s to 1990s with necessary influences in death prevention. However, there are several shortcomings existed in response to famines. The late arrival of emergency food aid sometimes obstructs famine recovery(Murphy & McAfee, 2005). For example, the USA averagelytakes five months to ship its aid to the destination, which resulted in less rapid response to the famine. Also because of the poor transfer efficiency between national and regional areas, emergency food aid could not target the most affected refugees. (责任编辑:anne)
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