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Advanced Management of Information Systems (AMIS)Written Ind

时间:2015-11-14 16:12来源:www.liuxuelw.com 作者:anne 点击:
我们要应采用技术来控制技术,通过技术来管理来保护计算环境。可以采取许多措施,使组织可以最大限度地减少风险的间谍软件的威胁。
1.0 Executive Summary执行摘要

本报告的目的是介绍间谍软件和它的相关性与现代企业。间谍软件是程序可以偷偷记录并监控用户的数据。
间谍软件可能会破坏一个企业通过外部的侵扰性能。它可以包含公司数据,侵犯隐私,干扰了市场营销过程中,除去主要的免费软件,并导致带宽消耗。然而,间谍软件还可以在一个企业的发展起到了积极的作用。这将有利于公司和消费者之间的沟通。
总而言之,一方面是,现代组织可以采取一些有效的措施,以避免间谍软件的攻击。在另一方面,用人间谍软件时,企业应注意隐私问题,以及平衡隐私的侵犯及其员工的绩效。

The purpose of this report is to introduce the spyware and its relevance with modern business. Spyware involves programs that could furtively record and monitor the user’s data. 
The spyware could undermine the performance of a business through external invasion. It might comprise company data, invasion of privacy, interfere with marketing process, remove primary freeware, and cause bandwidth consumption. Nonetheless, the spyware could also play a positive role in the growth of a business. It would facilitate the communication between the company and its consumers. 
All in all, on the one hand, modern organizations could take some effective measures to avoid the attack of spyware. On the other hand, when employing spyware, organizations should pay attention to the privacy issues, as well as balance the invasion of privacy and their employees’ performance. 
2.0 Definition of Spyware 间谍软件的定制

The increasing hazards faced by Internet users are problems of security and privacy. Different from direct attacks of viruses, these threats are indirect penetration of monitoring programs installed without users’ knowledge (Stafford and Urbaczewski, 2004). Spyware is defined as programs that (1) supervise the activities of a computer user, (2) capture data related to the user, as well as (3) store the information and divulge it to a third party (Ames, 2004). It involves Adware, Key Loggers as well as Trojan Horses (Stafford and Urbaczewski, 2004). According to a report from Microsoft (2004), it affected over 50% of Windows operating system failures. Furthermore, Moshchuk et al. (2005) found out that spyware existed in 13.4% of the 21,200 executables in their study, and ‘drive-by download’ attacks took up 5.9% of the Web pages. However, some companies introduce spyware to the commercial use. It not only plays a critical role in the interpretation of their customers, but also can supervise the behaviors of their employees. Therefore, although it is a newly emerging phenomenon, spyware exerts immediate and extensive influence on the Internet community, whether threatening security or facilitating business functions. 
 
3.0 Overview of Spyware 间谍软件的概述

Spyware was first found around the late 1990s. The term ‘spyware’ came out in October 1995, and were referred as tiny, hidden cameras (Lava Soft, n.d.). Elf Bowling was one of the early programs of spyware. It first appeared during the Christmas holiday in 1999, in the form of a silly free game. However, it actually stole and reported personal information to its developers (Tuneup Adviser, n.d.).  In the same year, Steven Gibson detected suspicious advertising software on his computer and developed the first ant-spyware, OptOut. Since then, more types of spyware emerged, with more complex forms and leading to more complex solutions. 
Individuals or organizations use spyware to find out the computing habit of another individual. According to Ames (2004), there are three levels of spyware. The first level concerns basic cookies. They allow the site to identify the user when he/she revisit, and they also permit an association between the user and data he/she provided before. Since these cookies would be convenient for users, they are considered as low risky ones. The second level involves associated cookies. They track users’ activity and note down users’ interaction with their member sites. These data would be shared with a third party, while users would be unaware of the whole process. The third level of spyware is on the basis of application, which will cause severe security problems and risk. Users generally fail to limit application-based spyware. It can implement upgrades, install other applications and produce advertising without the authorization of users. As a result, the last two levels of spyware would cause security issues. 
Spyware can be adopted for commercial destinations. Business can apply it to gather consumer data (Foster, 2002), which is especially prevalent in the e-commerce circles. Some business can recommend new software features by offering an active spyware-like application on consumer computers (Anonymous, 2004). However, hackers use spyware to realize their attacks and deliver deferred spam (Stafford and Urbaczewski, 2004). In addition, they would employ spyware to steal information of identity. The illegal application of spyware would infringe privacy and appropriate personal information furtively. Worse more, spyware combined backdoor Trojan spammers would attack a computer or web server, and make it to deliver e-mail for them (Hinde, 2004).  (责任编辑:cinq)
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