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公共关系管理案例及公共关系道德

时间:2013-06-10 20:48来源:www.liuxuelw.com 作者:didi 点击:
本文以德比动物园的一次危机为案例,讲述了什么是公共关系管理,以及如何处理,处理中需要注意的问题,并讲述了公共关系与道德的关系.

德比动物园的公关管理Public relations management at Derby Zoo


德比动物园的公关管理   第1部分Public relations management at Derby Zoo: part 1
该模块的评估作业是在完成教程的基础上独立完成一篇批判性反思。本教程任务会在课上讨论,然后你在作业中反馈你的意见。在团队合作中,你将扮演德比动物园的新闻发言人。在四周内,你都要对该案例负责。这是整个案例的第一个任务。The assessed coursework for this module is an individual critical reflection based on a portfolio of tasks completed in and between tutorials. The tutorial tasks will be discussed in class and you will have feedback on your work as you go along. Working in teams, you will play the role of the press office at Derby Zoo. Over a period of four weeks, you will manage the press for an evolving scenario. This is the first task that forms part of the portfolio.
简介Brief
德比动物园有两只大黑豹,他们有一只幼崽。这在英国历史上是第一只诞生在动物园内的黑豹。德比动物园全体工作人员都很高兴,显然这也是一个吸引游客的好机会。
Derby Zoo has two black panthers and they have had a cub. It is the first black panther cub to be born in captivity in the UK. Derby Zoo is delighted about this, and it clearly presents opportunities for attracting visitors to the zoo.
任务Task
新闻办公室必须对此发一个新闻稿,你需要考虑以下内容:
The press office must put together a press release about this. You will need to consider:
• what the zoo might do to mark the occasion and draw more visitors
• how the press release would fit within an integrated marketing communications plan
• to whom you will send the release and/or where you will place it so that the right people will see it.
你需要了解一下黑豹及德比动物园的背景资料。You may wish to do some background research to establish some facts about black panthers and about Derby Zoo.
Outputs
For inclusion in your portfolio you should create:
• 新闻稿不超过300字a press release of no more than 300 words
• any notes you have made or background information you have gathered
• a brief integrated marketing communications plan to show where the press release fits with other activities planned to promote the zoo.
德比动物园的公关管理   第2部分Public relations management at Derby Zoo: part 2
Brief
黑豹幼崽庆生活动的推广非常成功,大量游客涌入动物园。不幸的是,一些动物维权主义者混入游客中,搞破坏,惊动了其他游客,并将成年黑豹放出笼子。这给游客带来了危险。目前,黑豹仍逍遥法外。
The promotional activities for the birth of the black panther cub were a great success and a huge number of people visited the zoo. Unfortunately, some animal rights activists infiltrated the crowds that came to see the baby panther. They did some damage, alarmed other visitors and managed to release an adult panther. This caused immediate alarm and distress to visitors. The black panther is still on the loose.
新闻办公室必须针对此事件发布一则新闻稿。
The press office must put together a press release to manage the situation.
任务Task
新闻稿字数不超过500字。你需要考虑的有以下内容:
Write a press release of no more than 500 words. You will need to consider:
• 对当天入园游客所需负的责任。your responsibility to the visitors to the zoo on the day
• 对动物维权主义者的回复。your response to the animal rights campaigners
• 如何处理动物园内的刑事毁坏事件。(造成了何种破坏,及修复所需费用?)how you will deal with the criminal damage at the zoo (what kind of damage was it and what might it cost to repair?)
• 如何安抚公众?(他们会害怕些什么?)how you will calm the public’s fears (what might they be afraid of?)
• 如何与其他部门一起处理该事件?(有哪些部门?)how you will work with other agencies to resolve the situation (and which agencies are they?)
• 你最关注的是哪方面?(这应该是你整篇新闻稿的重点)what is your most important concern? (This should be the most prominent part of your press release.)

 

Outputs

 

For inclusion in your portfolio you should create:
• a press release of no more than 500 words
• any further notes you have made or background information you have gathered
• any amendments you feel you need to make to the overall marketing communications plan.
德比动物园的公关管理   第3部分Public relations management at Derby Zoo: part 3
Brief
黑豹仍然未找到。附近农场发现有几头羊被杀死,农场主非常生气。当地媒体介入-当地电台和电视台采访了农场主,农场主希望得到赔偿,并说如果动物园不能保证安全的话就不能饲养具有危险性的动物。
The black panther has still not been found. Some sheep have been killed on a nearby farm and the farmer is extremely angry. The local media are heavily involved – the local radio stations and the local TV stations have interviewed the farmer, who is demanding compensation and saying that the zoo shouldn’t be allowed to keep dangerous animals if they can’t manage security.
动物维权主义者已经发布了一则新闻稿,当地的媒体也已报道(报纸和电台)。他们认为如果不把动物关到动物园,就不会发生这种事情。他们强调:仍然有许多动物被迫呆在非自然环境的动物园内。
The animal rights activists have published a press release, which has picked up some coverage in the local press (print and broadcast). They say that none of this would have happened if the animal had been allowed to live in its own natural habitat instead of a zoo. They make the point that the zoo is still home to many animals ‘forced to live under unnatural conditions’.
当地警方因为被民众指责没有投入足够的时间和人员去追捕黑豹,也发表声明
The local police have also made a statement, as they have been criticised for not devoting enough time or enough police officers to search for the panther.
BBC要求采访德比动物园经理,经理已同意。采访只有几分钟时间,将以记录形式,而非直播,但是可能会有比较难回答的问题。新闻办公室必须为经理准备一份全面的简报,以备经理面对任何问题时都能及时回答。
The TV programme BBC Midlands Today has asked for an interview with the zoo’s General Manager and he has agreed. The interview will be recorded rather than live, and will only be a few minutes, but there are likely to be some very difficult questions. The press office must prepare a full briefing for the zoo’s General Manager so he is able to handle any questions asked.
任务Task
为经理准备一份全面的简报,你需要考虑到以下内容:
Prepare a full press briefing for the zoo’s General Manager. You need to consider:
• 电视节目主持人可能会问的问题-你是否能列一张可能提的问题的表?the questions that the TV presenter might ask in the interview – can you come up with a list of questions that might be asked?
• 经理应该如何回答才能维护动物园的声誉?what the General Manager needs to say to maintain the zoo’s brand
• how, in general, he should handle the situation – what sort of tone should be use and what should his attitude be?
• what background information he might need about black panthers, the zoo, the search for the animal so far, people the zoo is working with to manage the situation
• remember that TV presenters are broadcast journalists, so they like facts and figures.
Outputs
• a document or selection of documents totalling not more than 1000 words
• clear headings to help the General Manager find information quickly
• a short summary of the main points at the start
• bullet points of useful information, as necessary

 

道德与公关Ethics and PR

 

• 伦理Ethics
• “设置判断对错的标准”“the set of criteria by which decisions are made about what is right and what is wrong”

• Mark McElreath
• (Managing Systematic and Ethical Public Relations)
• 公关道德Ethics in PR
• 公关从业者代表组织对他们服务的公众进行道德监察PR practitioners should act on behalf of the organisations as the ethical ombudsman for the publics they serve
• 因此公关从业者应该是组织中最遵守道德的人… the PR practitioner should therefore be the MOST ethical person in the organisation
• 公关的道德原则PR’s Ethical Principles
• 公关从业者必须做到:PR practitioners must :
• ‘遵守道德的意愿,不伤害其他人,诚实守信’‘…have the will to be ethical, intending not to injure others but rather be honest and trust worthy’
• ‘努力避免会对他人产生不良后果的行为’‘… make every effort to avoid actions that would have adverse consequences for others’
•      Grunig & Hunt 1984
• 公关的道德义务PR’s Moral Obligations
• To ourselves
• To clients
• To organisations or employers
• To the profession & professional colleagues
• To society
•       Thomas Bavins 1992
• 关于道德的问题?The Morality Question ?
• 当不同利益相关者的道德义务发生碰撞时,会怎么样?
• What happens when ethical obligations to different stakeholders collide ?
•  e.g. ‘whistle-blowers’‘astroturfing’
• 道德在公共关系中Ethics in Public Relations
• 我们讲的道德到底是什么意思?What do we mean by ethics?
•    The basis of ethics is morality                               i.e. is it morally right to perform some action
• ‘PR actions are more important than words’
•         Ivy Lee
• 公关策划PR Planning
• 六点公关策划模型Six-Point PR Planning Model
• Jefkins (1994)


• 行动-形成公关策划 Action – Forming the PR Plan
• 第1步-建立目标Step 1- Establish the Goals
• 第2步-确定现状Step 2  - Determine Present Situation
• Step 3  - Determine Aids & Barriers to    Goals
• Step 4  - Forecasting
• Step 1   -   the Goals
• 你想如何被公众看待How do you want to be perceived by the Public
• Do resources dictate the goals?
• 是否有时间,人员,资金?i.e have you got the time, staff, money available?
• Goals must be defined with a clear understanding of the current situation & resources available
• Step 2 - the Present Situation
• Is the organisation perceived as it wants to be?
• Is the situation likely to change?
• Step 3 – Aids & Barriers to Goals
• What is around to help?
• e.g. do you have sympathetic Publics?
• What is around to hinder?
• e.g. what Pressure Groups could affect your plans and how?
• Step 4 - Forecasting
• Have all possible scenarios been considered?
• What type of plan is needed :
• Financial?
• Policy?
• Communication?
• All of them?
• 公关策划清单Checklist for PR Planning
• To whom are you talking?
• What do you want them to do?
• Why do you want them to do it?
• What are you going to say to them?
• Where are you going to reach them?
• When are you going to reach them?
• Which techniques will you use?
• How much are you going to spend?
• What if there is an unforeseen problem?
• How do you do it?

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